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Spectrum modern india History handwritten notes pdf


Unit I


Chapter 1

Sources for the History of Modern India Archival Materials

Central Government Archives

Archives of the State Governments Archives of Three Presidencies

Archives of Other European Powers

Judicial Records Published Archives

Private Archives Foreign Repositories

Biographies, Memoirs and Travel Accounts Newspapers and Journals

Oral Evidence Creative Literature



Chapter 2

Major Approaches to the History of Modern India Colonial Approach/Historiography Nationalist Historiography/ Approach Marxist Historiography/ Approach Subaltern Approach/ Historiography Communalist Approach

Unit II


Chapter 3

Advent of the Europeans in India

The Portuguese in India The Quest for and Discovery of a

Sea Route to India

From Trading to Ruling

Portuguese State

Portuguese Lose Favour with the Mughals 1 Decline of the Portuguese

Significance of the Portuguese

The Dutch

Dutch Settlements

Anglo-Dutch Rivalry

Decline of the Dutch in India

The English
Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Progress of the English Company

The French

Foundation of French Centres in India

The Anglo-French Struggle for Supremacy: the

Carnatic Wars Causes for the English Success and the

French Failure

The Danes

Why the English Succeeded against Other European Powers

Structure and Nature of the Trading Companies

Naval Superiority Industrial Revolution

Military Skill and Discipline Stable Government Lesser Zeal for Religion

Use of Debt Market



Portuguese Rise and Fall

Formative Years of the East India Company Rise and Fall of Dupleix in India

About the Goods in Trade Initially

Chapter 4

India on the Eve of British Conquest Challenges before the Mughals External Challenges

Weak Rulers after Aurangzeb An

Internal Challenge

Causes of Decline of Mughal Empire

Shifting Allegiance of Zamindars

Jagirdari Crisis

Rise of Regional Aspirations

Economic and Administrative Problems Rise of Regional States

Survey of Regional Kingdoms

Nature and Limitations of Regional States Socio-Economic Conditions


Trade and Industry Status of Education

Societal Set-up Development in Art, Architecture and Culture



Why Many Empire-shaking Battles at Panipat? Causes of the Mughals' Downfall in a Nutshell

Chapter 5

Expansion and Consolidation of British

Power in India The British Imperial History

Causes of British Success in India

Superior Arms, Military and Strategy Better Military Discipline and Regular Salary

Was the British Conquest Accidental or Intentional? When did the British Period Begin in India? Civil Discipline and Fair Selection System Brilliant Leadership and Support of Second Nationalist Pride

Line Leaders

Strong Financial Backup

British Conquest of Bengal

Bengal on the Eve of British Conquest

Alivardi Khan and the English Challenges Before Siraj-ud-daula

The Battle of Plassey

Mir Kasim and the Treaty of 1760 The Battle of Buxar

The Treaty of Allahabad Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)

'Mysore's Resistance to the Company The Wodeyar/Mysore Dynasty

Rise of Haidar Ali

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)

Third Anglo-Mysore War Anglo-Mysore War

Fourth Mysore After Tipu

Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy Rise of the Marathas

Entry of the English into Maratha Politics First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) Second Anglo Maratha War (1803-1805)

Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-19) Why the Marathas Lost

Conquest of Sindh

Rise of Talpuras Amirs Gradual Ascendancy over Sindh

Criticisms of the Conquest of Sindh Conquest of Punjab

Consolidation of Punjab under the Sikhs Ranjit Singh and the English

Punjab After Ranjit Singh

First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49)

Significance of the Anglo-Sikh Wars Extension of British Paramountcy Through Administrative Policy

The Policy of Ring-Fence

Subsidiary Alliance Doctrine of Lapse

Relations of British India with Neighbouring


Anglo-Bhutanese Relations

Anglo-Nepalese Relations

Anglo-Burmese Relations Anglo-Tibetan Relations

Anglo-Afghan Relations John Lawrence and the Policy

Masterly Inactivity


Lytton and the Policy of Proud Reserve pa British India and the North-West Frontier

Summary Boxes

Robert Clive

Estimate of Tipu Sultan Annexation of Awadh

Unit III



And much more




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